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Rabu, 10 Maret 2010

The economic rationale of Islamic values and Islamic laws in analysing economic activities

Universitas Islam Indonesia
Faculty of Economics
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

Syllabus
Islamic Microeconomics

Lecturer: Priyonggo Suseno
Email: epri@fe.uii.ac.id
Phone: 0274 – 492 549
Credit (SKS): 3
Pre-requisites: Introduction to Microeconomics
Consultation times: By appointment
Class Duration Two and a half hours per week for 12 weeks
One to one and a half hours of the time is used for lecture or seminar and the remainder for tutorial or small group work activities.

Subject Overview
This module will analyse the economic rationale of Islamic values and Islamic laws in analysing economic activities. It will examine how Islam has contributed several alternative values to business and economic policies in several Muslim countries. Students will gain an insight into how Islam can be considered as a universal system that can be applied to economic policies, business strategies and government regulations. Students will gain a unique perspective into how Islamic values make a significant contribution to a dynamic understanding of the international business climate. This subject will also arm students with the skills to understand and apply the elements of Islamic economics to economic and business policies.

Subject Objectives
On successful completion of this module students will:
1. Understand the fundamental features of Islamic economics.
2. Have gained comprehensive knowledge and skills regarding the methodologies associated with Islamic economics.
3. Posses a clear understanding of Islamic economic rationality including the key divine revelations on Islamic economics such as the prohibition of usury, gambling and gharar (dubious transactions).
4. Demonstrate an ability to practically understand and apply Islamic values to the current economic and business climate.

The lectures will cover the following areas systematically:
1. The economic system and its salient features
2. The origin and evolution of Islamic economics
3. Islamic law and economics
4. The concept of rationality in Islamic economics
5. Theory of consumer behaviour in an Islamic framework
6. Theory of the Islamic firm and finance
7. Market mechanism in Islamic perspectives.

Materials and References:
• Textbooks
Primary course readings are currently under review. These will be advised at the beginning of Semester Genap 2005.
• Additional Reading Material
1. Tahir S., Aidit Ghazaly and Syed Omar Syed Agil, Readings in Microeconomics: An Islamic Perspective, Longman Malaysia, 1992. [library]
2. Ahmad Ausaf & Kazim R Awan, Lectures on Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute IRTI, 1992 [library]
3. Ahmed Khursyid, Studies in Islamic Economics, Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 1990 [library]
4. Chapra M Umar, The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective, Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 2001. [library]
5. Kahf Monzer, Lesson in Islamic Economics, Vol. (1), IRTI - Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1998. [library]
6. See references attached to lecture notes for complete supplementary materials
• Journals
1. IQTISAD, journal of Islamic economics [library]
2. Review of Islamic Economics [library]
3. Islamic Economics Studies [library]
• Websites
1. Electronic journal: Proquest [on-line library]
2. www.islamic-finance.net
3. www.ruf.rice.edu

Assessment
Lectures will be organized into twelve weekly meetings.

Assignment- Group Task:
Students will be required to work in groups and devise a suitable topic on which to write a 2000-3000 word paper. The paper will be due one week before the final lecture.

Examinations
Students will sit a midterm and final exam. Both exams require you to answer three to four short essay questions. The exams are 100 minutes in duration.


End of Semester Result
The final grade will be determined by a composite evaluation of the student’s performance based on the following assessment areas:

Midterm Exam 35%
Final Exam 40%
Assignment 25%
Total 100%


Policy on assessment
Essays and assignments will not be accepted after the due date unless arrangements for an extension of time have been made prior to the due date. If you do not agree with the result that you are awarded for any piece of assessed material for this subject please contact the lecturer immediately. You have a right to know the reasons why your work has received a certain grade and to request a reassessment if you believe your work has been unfairly assessed.

Course Outline

Lecture No. Topic Description
1. Introduction:
Definition and Methodology of Islamic Economics The vision, mechanism, methods and nature of economic problems and the methodology of Islamic economics.
2. Evolution and History of Islamic Economics Evolution of Islamic economic thought, history of contemporary Islamic economic thought.
3. Islamic Law and Economics Islamic law and economics, principles of Islamic economics, theorising in Islamic economics.
4. Concept of Rationality in Islamic Economics Rational economic man, co-operative rationality, Islamic view of rationality, salient features of the Islamic rationality
5. Riba, Gharar and Speculation The concepts of interest, riba, gharar and speculation
6. Optimisation in Islamic Economics Concept of efficiency in Islamic perspectives and some selected Islamic contracts.
7. Mid Semester Exam In class test (closed book)
8. Consumer Behaviour from the Islamic Perspective Islamic concept of preference, self-interest and social interest, property rights and utility maximisation.
9. Theory of Islamic Firms Islamic concept of factor production, business, profit and competition, and Islamic business ethics.
10. The Economics of Profit-loss Sharing The concept of profit-loss sharing contracts, its application in Islamic business and finance, the impacts of profit-loss sharing system on the economy and the business environment.
11. Market Mechanisms from the Islamic Perspective The concept of market in Islam, early Islamic thought on market mechanism.
12. Distributive Justice from the Islamic Perspective Islamic pricing on factor of production, Islamic concept of economic resource distribution including zakah as the system for individuals and businesses and the distributive function of zakah
13. Final Exam



Lecture Note 1
Islamic Economics: Definition and Methodology

Overview

Learning objectives
This lecture aims to introduce students to the newly emerged discipline of Islamic economics and explain how Islam, as a religion, can provide solutions to basic economic problems faced by human beings.

Desired learning outcome:
This introductory lecture aims to enable students to appreciate how religion can play an important role in the determination of economic problems.

References
1. Ahmad, K. [ed.] 1981 Studies in Islamic Economics. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK [Introduction and Chapter 1]. [library]
2. Ahmad, A. and Awan, K. R. [eds.] 1992 Lectures on Islamic Economics. IRTI, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [Chapter 2] [library]
3. Kahf, M. [ed.] Lessons in Islamic Economics. IRTI, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [Chapters 1, 2, 5 and 6]. [library]
4. Chapra, M. U. 2000 The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK [Introduction, Chapters 1 – 4]. [library]
5. On-line resources: www.islamic-finance.net/islamic.economics/chap/ chapindex.html


Lecture Note 2
The Evolution and History of Islamic Economics

Overview

Learning objective
To provide an introductory overview to the development of Islamic economics, from the era of the Prophet Muhammad to the most contemporary Islamic economic thinking.

Desired learning outcome
This lecture aims to enable students to clearly understand the roots of and main frameworks behind both classic and contemporary Islamic economic thought.

References
1. Ahmad, K. [ed.] 1981 Studies in Islamic Economics. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK. [library]
2. Chapra, M. U. 2000 The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK. [library]



Lecture Note 3
Islamic Law and Islamic Economics

Overview

Learning objective
To introduce the concept of Islamic law and the role this law plays in building Islamic economics. Decision making and theorising within Islamic economics will also be analysed in relation to the role of Islamic law.

Desired learning outcome
To enable students to understand the role Islamic Law plays in the theory of Islamic economics. By the end of the lecture, students are expected to be able to clearly identify Islamic economic premises.

References
1. Zarqa M Anas (1992), “Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) and Economics of Exchange”, in Ahmad Ausaf (1992), Lectures on Islamic Economics, IRTI, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [Chapter 4]. [library]
2. Hassan Hussain Hamid, “The Jurisprudence of Financial Transaction”, in Ahmad Ausaf (1992), Lectures on Islamic Economics, IRTI, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [Chapter 5]. [library]
3. Al Sid M Ata (1998), “Some Fiqh Concepts Related to Economics”, in Kahf Monzer, Lessons in Islamic Economics Vol 1, IRTI, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [Chapter 2]. [library]
4. Mannan Abdul (1993), Islamic Economics: Theory and Practice, Houder & Stoughton Ltd.[Chapter 3] [library]


Lecture Note 4
The Concept of Rationality in Islamic Economics

Overview
The learning objective of this lecture is to compare the notions of rationality in Islamic and conventional economics, with a view to understanding the implications for consumer behaviour and resource allocation within firms and in society as a whole.

Desired learning outcome
This lecture should enable students to appreciate the importance of Islamic rationality in understanding Islamic economic behaviour.

References
1. Chapra, M. U. 2000 The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective. The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK [Chapters 2]. [library]
2. Naqvi, SNH (1993), Islam, Economics and Society, Kegan Paul International, London, UK [Chapter 3 and 5] [lecturer]



Lecture Note 5
Gharar, Riba and Speculation

Overview
The learning objective of this lecture is to introduce and clarify the three vital concepts of gharar, riba and speculation. These three concepts form the base of a major part of theorising in Islamic economics. This lecture attempts to show the importance of classification in the development of a new discipline like Islamic economics.

Desired learning outcome
Students should be able to apply these Islamic concepts to both the theory of exchange as well as to real world situations.

References
1. El-Gamal, M. E. 2000 “An Islamic Explication of the Prohibition of Gharar in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence”. A paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Banking held in Loughborough, August 13-15, 2000. [lecturer] On-line resource available: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~elgamal/files/gharar.pdf
2. El-Gamal, M. E. 2001 “An Islamic Explication of the Prohibition of Riba”, in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence [lecturer]. On-line resource available: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~elgamal/files/riba.pdf

Lecture Note 6
Optimisation: An Efficiency Analysis of Islamic Contracts of Exchange

Overview
The learning objectives of this lecture are:

1. To show how some selected Islamic contracts may be efficiency-enhancing
2. To emphasise how the tools of conventional economics can be used to reaffirm the validity of Islamic economic principles.

Desired learning outcome
This lecture and accompanying material should enable the students to apply prospect theoretic framework to study efficiency of Islamic contracts of exchange.

References
1. El-Gamal, M. E. 2000 “An Islamic Explication of the Prohibition of Gharar in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence”. A paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Banking held in Loughborough, August 13-15, 2000. [lecturer] On-line resource available: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~elgamal/files/gharar.pdf
2. Naqvi, SNH (1993), Islam, Economics and Society, Kegan Paul International, London, UK [Chapter 4] [lecturer]


Lecture Note 7
The Theory of Consumer Behaviour from an Islamic Perspective

The Learning Objective
The learning objective of this lecture is to introduce students to literature that has been developed in Islamic economics, which can be applied to the theory of consumer behaviour.

Desired Learning Outcome
Following attendance at the lecture, as well as studying the associated lecture notes and readings for this section, each student should be able to explain the consumer behaviour of a representative Muslim living in a Muslim environment.

References
1. Khan, M. F. 1995 Essays in Islamic Economics, The Islamic Foundation, UK. [Chapter 2] [library]
2. Khan, M. F. 1992 “Theory of Consumer Behaviour in Islamic Perspective”, In Ahmad, A. and Awan, K. R. (eds.) Lectures on Islamic Economics, [Chapter 9], IRTI, The Islamic Development Bank, Saudi Arabia. [library]
3. Kahf, M. 1980 “A Contribution to the Theory of Consumer Behaviour in an Islamic Economy”, In Ahmad, K. (ed.) Studies in Islamic Economics, Ch 2, The Islamic Foundation, UK [chapter 3] [library]
4. Zarqa M Anas, “Consumer Behaviour in an Islamic Economy”, in Ahmaed ausaf, Lessons in Islamic Economics Vol 1, IRTI[Chapter 14] [library]
5. Tahir Sayyid et. al. 1992, Reading in Microeconomics: an Islamic Perspective, Longman, Malaysia. [Chapter 2, 6 and 7] [library]


Lecture Note 8
Theory of the Islamic Firm

Learning Objectives
1. To introduce students to the salient features behind the theory of the Islamic firm.
2. To illustrate that the development of the theory of the Islamic firm has parallels with mainstream theories of the firm.

Desired Learning Outcomes

Students are expected to:
1. Develop an understanding of the social behaviour of the Islamic firm and compare it with models of the social firm.
2. Identify some shifts in mainstream thought and the relation of these shifts to the theories behind Islamic economics.

References
1. Khan, M. F. 1995 Essays in Islamic Economics. Chs. 7 and 8, The Islamic Foundation, UK. [library]
2. Dar, H. A., Harvey, D. and Presley, J. R. 1999 “Size, Profitability and Agency Problems in Profit Loss Sharing in Islamic Finance” from Proceedings of the Second Annual Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance, Cambridge, USA. [lecturer]
3. Dar, H. A. and Presley, J. R. 2000 Lack of Profit Loss Sharing in Islamic Banking: Management and Control Imbalances. Iqtishad, Journal of Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 2001. [library]
4. Tahir Sayyid et. al. 1992, Reading in Microeconomics: an Islamic Perspective, Longman, Malaysia. [Chapter 9, 10, 11, and 12] [library]
5. Ahmad, A. and Awan, K. R. (eds.) Lectures on Islamic Economics, [Chapter 9, 10, 11], IRTI, The Islamic Development Bank, Saudi Arabia. [library]


Lecture Note 9
The Economics of Profit Loss Sharing

Learning Objectives
- To explain the nature of the profit-loss sharing (PLS) contract
- To explain the implementation of the PLS to business and financial contracts

Desired Learning Outcomes
- Students will be able to understand the concept of PLS and identify its advantages and shortcomings.
- The students should also be able to analyse the application of the PLS contract to modern business and financial contracts.

References
1. Uthman Usamah A, Debt and Equity Contract in the Theory of Social Economy, Review of Islamic Economics, 1994, p. 19. [lecturer]
2. Siddiqi M Nejatullah, Partnership and Profit-Sharing in Islamic Law, The Islamic Foundation, UK, 1985. [library}]
3. ________________, Some Economic Aspects of Mudharabah, Review of Islamic Economics, 1991, p. 21 [lecturer]
4. Siddiqui Shamim Ahmad & Mohsen Fardmanesh, Saving and Investment under Mudarabah Finance, Review of Islamic Economics, 1992, p. 31. [lecturer]


Lecture Note 10
Market Mechanism in Islamic Perspective

Learning Objectives
- To explain the concept of market and business interactions in Islamic perspectives
- To explain the development of Muslim thoughts on market mechanisms and the role of the state.

Desired Learning Outcomes
- This lecture and accompanying material should enable the students to understand the implication of Islamic value to competition and business interaction
- The students should able to demonstrate the application of business interaction according to Islamic perspective.
References
1. Islahi AA, Economic Concept of Ibn Taimiyah, the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK, 1997.[lecturer]
2. Ahmad Mustaq, Business Ethics in Islam, Kitab Bhawan, New Delhi, 1999 [library].
3. Maududi Abul A’la, Economic System of Islam, Lahore Pakistan Publication (PVT), 1984 [library]

Lecture Note 11
Distributive Justice in Islamic Perspective

Learning Objectives
- To explain the resource distribution problem from the Islamic perspective.
- To explain the impact of the application of Islamic values into distribution policies and the business environment.
- To explain the distributive function of Zakah in an Islamic economy

Desired Learning Outcomes
- This lecture should enable the students to clearly understand the problem of distribution in Islamic perspective and its solutions.
- The students should also be able to understand distributive function of Zakah in an Islamic economy
References
1. Faridi, F.R. 1980 “Zakat and Fiscal Policy”, in K. Ahmad [ed] Studies in Islamic Economics. Ch 6, The Islamic Foundation, UK. [library]
2. Zarqa, M. A. 1992 “Distributive Justice in Islam”, in A. Ahmad and K. R. Awan [eds] Lectures on Islamic Economics. Ch 8, IRTI, IDB. [library]
3. Iqbal Munawar, Distributive Justice and Need Fulfilment in an Islamic Economy, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK, 1986. [library]
4. Iqbal Munawar, “Zakah, Moderation, and Aggregate Consumption in Islamic Economy”, in Ahmaed Ausaf, Lessons in Islamic Economics Vol 1, IRTI[Chapter 10] [library]
5. Website: http://www.amanafunds.com/

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